Ralph Manheim (1907-1992) translated more than one hundred books, primarily from German and French. His first major commision was Mein Kampf, which was published in the United States in 1943. Among his prizewinning translations are The Tin Drum
by Günter Grass, Castle to Castle
by Louis-Ferdinand Céline, and A Sorrow Beyond Dreams
by Peter Handke. After his death, the PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for lifetime acheivement in translation—which he won in 1988—was renamed in his memory.