Heinrich Böll (1917–1985) was one of Germany’s foremost post–World War II writers. He wrote short stories, essays, plays, and novels, the most famous of which are Billiards at Half-Past Nine
, The Clown
, Group Portrait with Lady
, and The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum
. Böll was awarded the Georg Büchner Prize in 1967 and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1972.